Scripture: Romans 11:13–24. 16:1– Phoebe was the woman who delivered Paul’s letter to the Romans.She was highly commended by him. Paul’s commendation of Phoebe functions as a signal to the Roman house churches that he supports the women leaders there. The extent of this revelation he often takes notice of that whereas hitherto in Judah only God was known, now Christ is salvation to the ends of the earth, to all nations. 1 I commend to you our sister Phoebe, a deacon # 16:1 Or servant # 16:1 The word deacon refers here to a Christian designated to serve with the overseers/elders of the church in a variety of ways; similarly in Phil. 1. None of the people listed in Romans 16 were famous or powerful in the world’s eyes. [1.] This mystery was kept secret since the world began: chronois aioniois sesigemenou. Paul wants to have a word with this “moral person” before he moves on to speak to the Jew… Cenchrea was a small sea-port town adjoining to Corinth, about twelve furlongs distant. The second is that they were mature and dedicated believers who he wants to commend and salute. 4. 8 Greet Amplias my beloved in the Lord. Paul sometimes calls Timothy his son, as an inferior but here he styles him his work-fellow, as one equal with him, such a respect does he put upon him: and Lucius, probably Lucius of Cyrene, a noted man in the church of Antioch (Acts 13:1), as Jason was at Thessalonica, where he suffered for entertaining Paul (Acts 17:5,6): and Sosipater, supposed to be the same with Sopater of Berea, mentioned Acts 20:4. 16 I recommend to you our sister Phoebe, who is a [ a]servant of the church which is at Cenchrea, 2 that you receive her in the Lord in a manner worthy of the [ b] The commandment of the everlasting God was enough to bear out the apostles and ministers of the gospel in their preaching. On the other hand, even if a strong case can be made that Phoebe held an office or leadership position, what cannot be determined is what exactly the function of a first century deacon was. "No," says he, "fear not though you cannot overcome in your own strength and wisdom, yet the God of peace will do it for you and through him that loved us we shall be more than conquerors." Scripture: Romans 16:25–27. 1. He does not will and command, as one that lorded it over God's heritage, but for love's sake beseeches. Therefore, because it was so, these seducing teachers would be the more apt to assault them. She is “our sister, who is minister of the church which is in Cenchreae” (16:1). Romans 16:1–16 includes a list of two dozen or so people or groups that Paul wants his readers to greet for him in Rome. (2.) He told his audiences to accept her and offer her any help which she may ask for because she had been very helpful to a great many people, including him. 2. None of them knew that their names would be enshrined in Scripture for millions of Christians down through the ages to read. 5:6), Israel (Rom. That much—and more—is quite clear. and see verse 14 above. a. I commend to you Phoebe our sister: Paul certainly knew the value of what women could do in serving the church. (4.) I. 23 Gaius mine host, and of the whole church, saluteth you. 1. How earnest, how endearing, are Paul's exhortations! So much knowledge and so much love are a very rare, but (where they exist) a very excellent and amiable--composition for what is heaven but knowledge and love made perfect? How ready was Paul to acknowledge in others any kind of precedency! When Abraham removed his tent, he renewed his altar, Genesis 13:18. Romans 16:2 Lit and of me, myself; Romans 16:5 I.e., west coast province of Asia Minor; Romans 16:7 Or possibly Junias (masc) Romans 16:7 Lit have become; Romans 16:15 See note 1 v 2; Romans 16:17 Lit occasions of stumbling; Romans 16:18 Lit belly; Romans 16:23 Late mss add as v 24: The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all. It has the sense of ‘kin’ or ‘ethnic relation.’ Paul uses the term in Romans 9:3 to make clear that he grieves over the situation of his ethnic kin. ... (John 14:1-3) and fully explained by Paul (1 Cor. The titles he gives to God: The God of peace, the author and giver of all good. The apostle commends to the Christians at Rome Phoebe, a deaconess of the Church at Cenchrea, Rom 16:1, Rom 16:2.Sends greetings to Aquila and Priscilla, of whom he gives a high character; and greets also the Church at their house, Rom 16:3-5.Mentions several others by name, both men and women, who were members of the Church of Christ at Rome, Rom 16:6-16. Now, mark those that thus cause divisions, skopein. For example, see Origen, Commentary on Romans, 10.17. Tertius, the scribe who writes the letter, also sends greetings. There may be occasion sometimes to improve our interest in our friends, not only for ourselves, but for others also, interest being a price in the hand for doing good. 1:1 and 1 Tim. A. Greetings to many different Christians. Amen. In other words, there was once—and this would hold good even if the ‘Ephesian’ theory were right—a body of men and women to whom the Epistle to the Romans could be sent in the confident expectation that it provided an answer to their questions; that somehow or other it would be understood and valued. 2 I ask you to receive her in the Lord in a way worthy of his people and to give her any help she may need from you, for she has been the benefactor of many people, including me. And doubtless it had a good influence upon this that Priscilla the good wife of the family was so very eminent and forward in religion, so eminent that she is often named first. Will not these adversaries of our souls be at length too hard for us?" Romans 4 Abraham was not justified by works 1 He is father to those of circumcision and to those without it 9 If those of the law are made heirs, where is faith 14 Abraham believed God's promises in hope 17 Righteousness is for us, too, if we believe 23. They were originally of Rome, but were banished thence by the edict of Claudius, Acts 18:2. Phoebe may have been the person who personally delivered Paul’s epistle to the Romans. The history of translations of this word in Romans 16:1 provides a picture in microcosm of how churches have tried to negotiate their way through the question of women in the diaconate. The household of Stephanas is likewise said to be the first-fruits of Achaia, 1 Corinthians 16:15. 17 Now I beseech you, brethren, mark them which cause divisions and offences contrary to the doctrine which ye have learned and avoid them. Paul begins his letter to the believers in the capital city with the self-designation “called apostle” (Rom. Both Christ and his apostles had some of their best friends among the devout (and upon that account honourable) women. (3.) The preaching of the prophets, as far as it related to this mystery, was in a great measure dark and unintelligible in the ages wherein they lived but the scriptures of the prophets, the things which they left in writing, are now not only made plain in themselves, but by them this mystery is made known to all nations. 2. He was one of … You can’t remember their name. II. 25 Now to him that is of power to stablish you according to my gospel, and the preaching of Jesus Christ, according to the revelation of the mystery, which was kept secret since the world began, 26 But now is made manifest, and by the scriptures of the prophets, according to the commandment of the everlasting God, made known to all nations for the obedience of faith: 27 To God only wise, be glory through Jesus Christ for ever. For I am not ashamed of the Gospel of Christ The reason why he was so ready and willing to preach it, even where he ran the greatest risk of his character and life, was, because it was "the Gospel of Christ" he preached, and he was not ashamed of it. Surely, because now the event has given the best exposition to the prophecies of the Old Testament. He calls them his helpers in Christ Jesus, by private instructions and converse furthering the success of Paul's public preaching, one instance of which we have in their instructing Apollos, Acts 18:26. The sixteenth chapter of Romans was treated as a detachable unit at least as early as the second century, showing that some considered it to be a tagalong compared with the rest of Paul’s letter to the Romans.1 The oldest surviving manuscript of Romans, Chester Beatty Papyrus II, also known as Π46, dating from the early third century, places the benediction of 16:25-27 between 15:33 and chapter 16. Paul calls it his gospel, because he was the preacher of it and because he did so much glory in it. One that was Paul's amanuensis (Romans 16:22): I Tertius, who wrote this epistle. This will be the best preservative against the snares of heretics, and schismatics, and false teachers. This bespeaks the honour of the gospel it is no vulgar common thing, hammered out by any human wit, but it is the admirable product of the eternal wisdom and counsel of God, and has in it such an inconceivable height, such an unfathomable depth, as surpass knowledge. a) In a sense, that is what I want you to get out of Chapter 16. Because Romans is about the other, because Paul’s gospel must go out to all people, including the Jews (Rom. If this name is accented as Iounían it could be the accusative case of either the feminine name Iounía (Junia) or the proposed masculine name Iounías (Junias). 1 I commend unto you Phebe our sister, which is a servant of the church which is at Cenchrea: 2 That ye receive her in the Lord, as becometh saints, and that ye assist her in whatsoever business she hath need of you: for she hath been a succourer of many, and of myself also. Some that were his particular friends, and probably known to the Roman Christians: Timotheus my work-fellow. Being accomplished, they are explained. The adversary and enemy covets such a prey, therefore look to yourselves, 2 John 1:8. When we come to God for spiritual victories, we must not only eye him as the Lord of hosts, whose all power is, but as the God of peace, a God at peace with us, speaking peace to us, working peace in us, creating peace for us. God, as the God of peace, will restrain and vanquish all those that cause divisions and offences, and so break and disturb the peace of the church. Though the majority of Romans scholars now consider Romans 16 to be an integral part of the letter that Paul wrote,4 it has not attracted the attention paid to the earlier chapters of the letter. I. The blessing he expects from God--a victory over Satan. [A new version of this page can be found here] . He recommends her to their care and kindness, as one worthy to be taken notice of with peculiar respect. His estate, and honour, and employment, did not take him off from attending on Paul and laying out himself for the good of the church, it should seem, in the work of the ministry for he is joined with Timothy (Acts 19:22), and is mentioned 2 Timothy 4:20. Paul made use of a scribe, not out of state nor idleness, but because he wrote a bad hand, which was not very legible, which he excuses, when he writes to the Galatians with his own hand (Galatians 6:11): pelikois grammasi--with what kind of letters. Apparently Phoebe was on her way to Rome (probably entrusted with this precious letter) and Paul sends an advance recommendatio… 91:13; Acts 28:3-6; Rev. Slaves, freedmen/women in the Roman house churches, Since the “leveling of names” occurred later in the imperial period than in the mid-first-century when Paul wrote this letter, we are able still to make some class distinctions on the basis of names with a considerable degree of probability for the letter written to the Romans.12, The term ‘servile’ designates either a slave or a freedman/woman. Paul had his head and heart so full of the gospel that he could scarcely mention it without a digression to set forth the nature and excellency of it. Or, since the world began, so we translate it. rom 16:0. This Paul suggests with a great deal of modesty and tenderness not as one suspicious of them, but as one solicitous for them: "You obedience has come abroad unto all men we grant this and rejoice in it: I am glad therefore on your behalf." So the reformed church of Paris might be called the church at Charenton, where they formerly met, out of the city. John Piper Dec 24, 2006 181 Shares God is most glorified in us when we are most satisfied in him Those of their household who are in the Lord (as it is limited, Romans 16:11), that were Christians. She received Paul’s hearty commendation. The Basic Principle of Impartiality (2:12-13) B. Chapter Contents. During all the times of the Old-Testament this mystery was comparatively kept secret in the types and shadows of the ceremonial law, and the dark predictions of the prophets, which pointed at it, but so that they could not stedfastly look to the end of those things, 2 Corinthians 3:13. Dec 14, 2003. Though it were so, yet they were in danger from these seducers. 14:1-15:6), and the women and slaves or former slaves we have met in Romans 16:1-15. Romans chapter 1 KJV (King James Version) 1 Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, separated unto the gospel of God,. If the Root Is Holy, the Branches Are Holy. For there is no authority except from God, and the authorities that exist are appointed by God. At Corinth, Paul became acquainted with them, wrought with them at the trade of tent-making after some time, when the edge of that edict was rebated, they returned to Rome, and thither he now sends commendations to them. Help CBE spread the message that #Godvalueswomen. In a nutshell, Epp shows how there is no record of any man being named Junias, even though that used to be the suggested form of the masculine name.21 And as for a contraction of Iunianus, Epp follows a scholar named Thorley in asserting that the contraction of Iunianus would be Iunas, rather than the Iunias found here.22 The variant Julia shows that a scribe was reading this as a woman’s name and changed it to a more recognizable woman’s name, perhaps also influenced by the “Julia” of Romans 16:15.23 A last ditch effort to keep women out of leadership roles has been attempted by those who state that “outstanding among the apostles” means that a woman named Junia was recognized as special by the apostles, but was not considered an apostle herself. I commend to you Phoebe our sister, who is a servant of the church in Cenchrea, that you may receive her in the Lord in a manner worthy of the saints, and assist her in whatever business she has need of you; for indeed she has been a helper of many and of myself also. 16 - Mind not high things Better, "Be not high minded" See ro1120 for the same advice, " 17 - Recompence We are to return good for those who are against us mt0538-48, 1co1305-6. To be simple concerning evil--so wise as not to be deceived, and yet so simple as not to be deceivers. The everlasting God. That’s why you cannot teach Romans 16 except out of the context that started back in Romans 12. Why would Paul spend a significant part—forty words—at the very beginning of his final greetings, mentioning Phoebe, someone who is not even from his church at Corinth? I will examine each of these parts of the chapter and then conclude with a reflection on the significance of Romans 16 for the church. He says of Tryphena and Tryphosa, two useful women in their places, that they laboured in the Lord (Romans 16:12), and of the beloved Persis, another good woman, that she laboured much in the Lord, more than others, abounding more in the work of the Lord. It is no less than a divine power that establishes the saints. It is in and through Christ that God is manifested to the world as the only wise God for he is the wisdom of God, and the power of God. To report dead links, typos, or html errors or suggestions about making these resources more useful use the convenient, Matthew Henry's Complete Commentary on the Bible. For this body of men and women it seems that theology—this theology!—was THE living theme.…In fact, these men and women are more surprising than are the other historical problems raised by the Epistle to the Romans. Greet them that be of the household of Narcissus, which are in the Lord. To him bear all the prophets witness. That power of God which is put forth for the establishment of the saints is and ought to be the matter of our praise, as Jude 1:24, To him that is able to keep you from falling. The subject-matter of the gospel is a mystery. Chapter 16. Some think this Mary had been at some of those places where Paul was, though now removed to Rome, and had personally ministered to him others think Paul speaks of her labour as bestowed upon him because it was bestowed upon his friends and fellow-labourers, and he took what was done to them as done to himself. Romans 16 is the final passage in Paul's long letter to the Christians in Rome. As a sister to Paul: Phebe our sister not in nature, but in grace not in affinity or consanguinity, but in pure Christianity: his own sister in the faith of Christ, loving Paul, and beloved of him, with a pure and chaste and spiritual love, as a sister for there is neither male nor female, but all are one in Christ Jesus, Galatians 3:28. It was no disparagement to the chamberlain of the city to be a preacher of the gospel of Christ. Most adults can relate to the following scenario: You see somebody that you knew from a long time ago. But this passage is not a dry list of names. 3:8,12. 16 Salute one another with a holy kiss. Through their word (John 17:20), the word committed to them. He was a choice Christian, whose gifts and graces evinced that he was eternally chosen in Christ Jesus. They were of note among the apostles, not so much perhaps because they were persons of estate and quality in the world as because they were eminent for knowledge, and gifts, and graces, which made them famous among the apostles, who were competent judges of those things, and were endued with a spirit of discerning not only the sincerity, but the eminency, of Christians. The other names marked by “east” probably came from the east, according to Lampe. 7 Salute Andronicus and Junia, my kinsmen, and my fellowprisoners, who are of note among the apostles, who also were in Christ before me. (8-15) The gospel way of justification by faith, for Jews and Gentiles. I am not lying. It was a good while ago that they had done Paul this kindness and yet he speaks as feelingly of it as if it had been but yesterday. He adds, in the close, a general salutation to them all, in the name of the churches of Christ (Romans 16:16): "The churches of Christ salute you that is, the churches which I am with, and which I am accustomed to visit personally, as knit together in the bonds of the common Christianity, desire me to testify their affection to you and good wishes for you." 2 (Which he had promised afore by his prophets in the holy scriptures,). Some refer it to the happy period of their contentions in true love and unity others to the period of the church's persecutions in the conversion of the powers of the empire to Christianity, when the bloody enemies of the church were subdued and trampled on by Constantine, and the church under his government. He was one of known integrity and sincerity in his religion, one that had been tried his friends and enemies had tried him, and he was as gold. III. "Be wise to try the spirits, to prove all things, and then to hold fast that only which is good." A doxology to that God whose gospel it is, ascribing glory to him for ever (Romans 16:27), acknowledging that he is a glorious God, and adoring him accordingly, with the most awful affections, desiring and longing to be at this work with the holy angels, where we shall be doing it to eternity. When Satan seems to have prevailed, and we are ready to give up all for lost, then will the God of peace cut the work short in righteousness. Still, this chapter is highly significant, since it connects what some people read as the abstract, doctrinal sections of Romans that seem to orbit in the stratosphere down to life as we experience it here with our feet on the ground. The worse they are, the more need we have to watch against them. The parallels drawn between this warning and those in Philippians 3:2-21 and Galatians 6:11-15 make it appear likely that Paul could easily enter a warning mode when concluding his letters.25 Cranfield even argues that these verses are not so abrupt, since the greetings are completely concluded in 16:16 and greetings from Paul’s logistics/secretarial team begin at 16:21.26. Who were these people that Paul warned the Romans to avoid? Romans 1:16 For I am not ashamed of the Gospel of Christ The reason why he was so ready and willing to preach it, even where he ran the greatest risk of his character and life, was, because it was "the Gospel of Christ" he preached, and he was not ashamed of it. It will encourage soldiers when they know the war will be at an end quickly, in such a victory. This challenge can be summarized in the following question: What is the significance of this final chapter of greetings for those of us who are not the original recipients of the letter? Observe, (1.) (8-15) The gospel way of justification by faith, for Jews and Gentiles. Dec 24, 2006. When Priscilla and Aquila were at Ephesus, though but sojourners there, yet there also they had a church in their house, 1 Corinthians 16:19. Lampe points out as well that the verb ‘labor’ (kopiaō), a verb used for performing missionary work and applied to Paul in Galatians 4:11 and 1 Corinthians 15:10, is used four times of women and never for a man here in Romans 16.11. God’s *blessings for the *Jews 9:1-5. v1 I speak the truth in *Christ. Erastus the chamberlain of the city saluteth you, and Quartus a brother. True love never sticks at labour, but rather takes a pleasure in it where there is much love there will be much labour. For instance, the verses that we are considering here (Romans 16:25-27 in the NRSV) are found in chapter 14 in some manuscripts—chapter 15 in at least one—and chapter 16 in others. And since all men are sinners (3:9-20), and the gospel deals with the issue of sin and alienation from God (5:1-11), all men are freely offered the gospel irrespective of nationality, religion, sex, education, etc. This table shows a general trend toward recognizing Phoebe as a church leader, after centuries of relegating her to a ‘servant’ and ‘helper’ role. Concerning Rufus (Romans 16:13), chosen in the Lord. Greet them, salute them it is the same word, aspasasthe. The churches of Christ salute you. The matter of this praise. Tip: to find an exact phrase or title, enclose it in quotation marks. But the passage is not without its interpretive difficulties. It is observable how often Paul speaks as if he were concluding, and yet takes fresh hold again. The composition of this letter was no doubt a challenging task, and may account for this greeting, the clearest record of a Pauline secretary in the New Testament. II. 16 - Same mind Having a spirit of cooperation even when personal opinions differ; be the mind of Christ. Epp, “Text-Critical, Exegetical, and Socio-Cultural Factors,” 265. Concerning Epenetus, Romans 16:5. Really, really badly. Not many mighty, not many noble, are called, but some are. Most of this final chapter to the Romans contains greetings. Be strong therefore in the grace which is in Christ Jesus. He sent His Son to rescue you from sin and judgment. Biblical Commentary (Bible study) Romans 16:25-27. Epp shows the research supporting this assertion is actually inconclusive, and cites the native Greek speaker John Chrysostom’s clear testimony that the text is indicating that Junia, a woman, is regarded as an apostle.24, The scope of addressees listed here shows us that Paul is embracing a Christianity in which women labor as leaders and in which slaves and people of differing ethnic origins are accorded full place. (1.) Ibid., 284-90, responding to Michael H. Burer and Daniel B. Wallace, “Was Junia Really an Apostle? Probably they used to meet at her house, and she undertook the care of entertaining the ministers, especially strangers. of the church in Cenchreae. Endearing language should pass among Christians to express love, and to engage love. As N. T. Wright writes in another essay in this volume, “I used to think Romans 16 was the most boring chapter in the letter…” (see p. 7). The wisdom of the serpent becomes Christians, but not the subtlety of the old serpent. The name that occurs in most of the manuscripts is Iounian, a name that when found with no accent could be either a man or a woman. The master they serve: not our Lord Jesus Christ. Those are helpers to faithful ministers that lay out themselves in their families and among their neighbours to do good to souls. Though the care of all the churches came upon Paul daily, enough to distract an ordinary head, yet he could retain the remembrance of so many and his heart was so full of love and affection as to send salutations to each of them with particular characters of them, and expressions of love to them and concern for them. 3:1-2; 9:1-3; 11:1, 28; 16:7, 11, 21). Amen. And yet he has something more to say nay, again he repeats the blessing (Romans 16:24), and yet has not done an expression of his tender love. with other early manuscripts of Romans, there is clear evidence that in the second century, if not before, a fourteen-chapter version of the letter once circulated, composed of 1:1-14:23 plus 16:25-27. Romans 16:1. Paul stated in Romans Chapter 2 that people were storing up wrath because of their hatred. The benediction at 13:20 certainly captures the scriptural theme of God’s representative treading on the serpent (Gen. 3:15; Ps. 16:16-Greeting with a holy kiss was a cultural thing amongst the Jews.Some countries in the world today still do this. The obedience of faith is that obedience which is paid to the word of faith (see that phrase, Acts 6:7), and which is produced by the grace of faith. Because of the pernicious policy of these seducers, Romans 16:18. John Piper Dec 24, 2006 181 Shares God is most glorified in us when we are most satisfied in him This … 3 Concerning his Son Jesus Christ our Lord, which was made of the seed of David according to the flesh;. Ministers are the ambassadors, and the gospel is their embassy. We have a great need therefore to keep our hearts with all diligence, especially when seducing spirits are abroad. Hard evidence for the feminization of Paul’s ministry strategy comes first from his commendation of Phoebe. He sends likewise greeting to the church in their house, Romans 16:5. True religion, rightly received, never made any man uncivil. Whether scholars consider this as Paul’s own benediction or one by a later scribe, most regard this benediction as a fitting summary of the letter. In Romans Chapter 16, Paul warned his followers to beware of those people who wish to divide them by causing infighting and other troubles. This chapter helps us see that the letter is intended for women and men, slaves and free, Jews and ethnē (nations), indeed all who are following Jesus in the politically repressive shadow of the empire. The Jewish ethnicity of some of the people in Paul’s audience is explicitly marked by his use of the term suggenēs, a word that I’ve translated ‘relative’ in Figure 2. The apostle's commission. Figure 2, “Who first heard Paul’s letter? Romans. The only names that are probably not slave names are Prisca, Aquila, Urbanus, and Rufus. Romans 1:16. That which establishes souls is the plain preaching of Jesus Christ. The “leveling of names” was due to upwardly mobile freedmen/women who gained wealth and sought noble names and the low fertility rates and economic stagnation of the nobility. [1.] I refer to Revelation 10:11, which this explains. Sign up for our newsletter to receive our most up-to-date news, articles, and information. Romans 11:16, ESV: "If the dough offered as firstfruits is holy, so is the whole lump, and if the root is holy, so are the branches." These apostles are Andronicus and Junia, a man and a woman, whom Paul describes as “outstanding among the apostles.”. Therefore it — The blessing; is of faith, that it might be by grace — That it might appear to flow from the free love of God; that God might magnify the riches of his grace, in proposing justification and eternal life to us, in a way that might, in multitudes of instances, be effectual. And, (1.) As the Apostle had before sent his own salutations to many of this church, and that of the churches round him to them all, he here adds an affectionate remembrance of them from some particular persons who were now with him, the better to promote acquaintance and fellowship among distant saints, and that the subscribing of these worthy names, known to them, might the more recommend this epistle. 16; Romans 13 – A Christian’s Obligation to Government A. 1. 14 Salute Asyncritus, Phlegon, Hermas, Patrobas, Hermes, and the brethren which are with them. Some think there was a church there, distinct from that at Corinth, though, being so near, it is very probable that the church of Corinth is called the church of Cenchrea, because their place of meeting might be there, on account of the great opposition to them in the city (Acts 18:12), as at Philippi they met out of the city by the water-side, Acts 16:13. 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