It has played a role of identifying the useful government to the western communities and the best state of governance to hold. The Social Contract. Absolutism in Western Europe Cont. Social contract theory says that people live together in society in accordance with an agreement that establishes moral and political rules of behavior. Christman, J., 2002. Drawing on social contract theory, Integrative Social Contracts Theory posit that rational global contractors--businesses, individuals and other economic actors--enter into a hypothetical contract determining standards and norms. Other people obey the law because they are forced due to fear of punishment but not because they are obliged to. Learn about social contract theory and what some important thinkers from the 1600s onward had to say about it. 827 Words 4 Pages. London: Routledge. This view indicates companies can prosper by focussing on making profits rather than on troublesome and subjective ethical concerns. 1. McClelland, S., 1996. Most original political philosopher of the 17th century If you are the copyright owner of this paper and no longer wish to have your work published on IvyPanda. This made them to compete with one another. Though social contract has played a major role in moral and political theory, it has experienced criticism whereby, feminists and philosophers who are conscious to race consider it as an incomplete symbol to moral and political theory as they see it as a way of camouflaging, hence, the contract is seen as discriminative in nature. "The Importance of Social Contract Theory in Modern Society." Social contract theory synonyms, Social contract theory pronunciation, Social contract theory translation, English dictionary definition of Social contract theory. John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704), was an English philosopher and physician regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and known as the "Father of Classical Liberalism". What this means is that just as institutions are the result of the actions of actors, so post-institutional outcomes are the result of equivalent actions. These concessions are but partial, if not artificial, commitment to ethical responsibility, and only a fraction of companies do these. Portrayed human beings and society in materialistic and mechanical way. Among the key objectives in businesses is the importance of giving back to society, a role that has come to be known as social responsibility. The term 'social contract' refers to the idea that the state exists only to serve the will of the people, who are the source of all political power enjoyed by the state. Though obedience goes hand in hand with state governance, not all political decisions require being obedience (McClelland 1996, p163). Putsimply, it is concerned with public justification, i.e., “ofdetermining whether or not a given regime is legitimate an… In addition, it was termed as a form of political revolution and lastly, as a way of treating each individual the same regardless of their race, origin or color (Cristo 2003, p38). In fact, economists have demonstrated that corporate profits associated with ethics, and increase the level of profits tied to increase level of ethics. Social contract facilitated rationale to the state citizens as they had better understanding of political theories by capturing the social contract concepts. A social contract theory has played major role in enhancing political democracy in western political theory. Social contract moulds the western political theories, through contract of association, whereby, individuals sacrifice their liberty for the sake of others to join the community. As opposed to state of nature, social contract brought about development of states which enhanced citizen’s democracy. "The Importance of Social Contract Theory in Modern Society." Western countries have fully benefitted politically from social contract. September 10, 2019. https://ivypanda.com/essays/role-of-the-social-contract-in-western-political-theory/. Social contract, in political philosophy, an actual or hypothetical compact, or agreement, between the ruled and their rulers, defining the rights and duties of each. A social contract theory has played major role in enhancing political democracy in western political theory. Hence, it was employed as a device of framing what was good in developing the just society or state. The Ethical Necessity/Imperative Position: Companies and business people should be ethical IvyPanda. Your privacy is extremely important to us. According to Dunn (1993, p28), Westerners have been in a position to exercise their democracy as citizens with rights to make their own decision when voting. ensure the integrity of our platform while keeping your private information safe. The social contract is a concept in the philosophy of ethics and political science that has more recently been applied to the study of business ethics. Social contract theory is based on the idea of a contractual agreement between the individual and the state, under which the power of the sovereign is justified by a hypothetical social contract in which the people agree to obey in all matters in return for a guarantee of peace and security, which they lack in the warlike "state of nature" posited to exist before the contract is made. When a society develops, it will become necessary for a government to compensate for the eventual defect of moral virtue in individuals. A) Explain the basics of Rawls and Churchill’s arguments and how they each criticize classic social contract theories. To illustrate this concept, Paine supports his idea with a hypothetical island. Tolerated every religion IvyPanda. According to eminent Professor Dicey, the rule of law presupposes the absence of wide discretionary authority among the rulers and that they are unable to govern according to their own laws and they actually end up governing and implementing the existing laws . Both parents were Puritans. A History of Western Political Thought. Said monarchy is the effective to maintain order (2019, September 10). - University Education, Political Environment Case: Inmate Programs Issue, Elements of Fascism in UK and US Practices on Global Issues. Although in the concept of the Social Contract Theory written by the three philosophers- Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Thomas Hobbes, and John Locke … If the citizens derive from the government maximum benefits that is proportional to what government requires from them, the government acquires strength and legitimacy (Jones 2002, p.145). John Locke was born in Wrington, Somerset, England, to John and Agnes Lock, the father a country lawyer and clerk to the Justices of the Peace in Chew Magna. Social contract arguments typically posit that individuals have consented, either explicitly or tacitly, to surrender some of their freedoms and submit to the authority in exchange for protection of their remaining rights … According to Hobbes (2002, p.26), “political order and social contract creates a way toward an end by benefiting only the involved individuals.” Several social contract theorists argued that, failings associated with law and political order can only be changed by citizens through election or other means like violence. It was seen as an intellectual expression to European political thoughts where by kings, vassal and lords, were considered in formation of political, legal and military affairs (Rousseau 1987, p16). It was thought that Social contract died after it was ridiculed by Bentham and Hume, though it has been in existence until twentieth century as an argument of rights of the state. Social contract attempts to evaluate and show the purpose and value of the organized government by comparing and contrasting the civil society and the state of nature. These business people do not understand this concept and do not fully understand the role of ethical in business. Social contract theory is a contentious idea in the study of business morals, since extensive political issues are tied to it, to which many people disagree. The rule of law requires both citizens and Government to be subjected to standing law. London: Routledge. For full functionality of this site it is necessary to enable JavaScript. Social contract also appeared as a means for better understanding of the public policy which existed in the works of John Rawls, an American political philosopher. In the first section of Common Sense, Thomas Paine characterizes government as he sees it, which is still an influential viewpoint. Institutions do not act. Political philosophers throughout history have had differing views on how governments rule over people. Dunn, J., 1993. Rousseau, J., 1987. It contains thousands of paper examples on a wide variety of topics, all donated by helpful students. Sixteenth century philosopher, John Locke, believed that, when men transfer their rights to a government, a social contract is entered into. At C… The database is updated daily, so anyone can easily find a relevant essay example. The answer is obviously to find socially CSR projects that can be advantageous to the organization; however, many believe that this defeats the aim of carrying responsible business practices. To describe this conflict in the most general of terms, it was a clash between the King and his supporters, the Monarchists, who preferred the traditional authority of a monarch, and the Parliamentarians, most notably led by Oliver Cromwell, who demanded more power for the quasi-democratic institution of Parliament. Social contract was developed in early western political thought. Both parties to the contract should behave as if it was tangible and real. Social contract created political theory by capturing the concept that individual obedience is not necessary when making a congruent decision; hence it is necessary for the citizens to make decisions based on the individuals’ choice but not through political influence (Rouseau 1987, p19). His characterization is perhaps best summed up in his own succinct words: “government even in its best state is but a necessary evil.” These words speak measures to his attitude towards the fundamental nature of government—an attitude that shaped a political party in his time that has evolved over time with the core concept relatively intact. Although these statements, we can see that we do not have a strict separation between the three functions, as Bagehot said in his writings “the close union, the nearly complete fusion, of the executive and legislative powers”, with cabinet being responsible to. we will assume that you agree to our In 1647, he was sent to the prestigious Westminster School in London under the sponsorship of Alexander Popham, a member of Parliament and his father‘s former commander. The Importance of Social Contract Theory in Modern Society. Minister Sully brought economic stability and financial growth Social contract is an intellectual tool aimed at explaining necessary relationships between individual and their government (Christman 2002, p26). There remains a lack of genuine initiative to “ethicize” business institutions. Everyone would agree to outlaw theft, fraud and murder, so these c… McClelland (1996, p.145) wrote that, “It formed unwritten rules for the society that was used for governance leading to formation of government constitution.”. The aim of a social contract theory is to show that members of somesociety have reason to endorse and comply with the fundamental socialrules, laws, institutions, and/or principles of that society. Social construction Giddens (1989) defined sociology as the academic discipline concerned with the study of human social life. A big question that intrigued the theorists of the social contract theory was, that how can people give away their freedom to a sovereignty in trade for some benefits? In Social contract, people gave up their rights with the expectation that others would do the same for them. Henry IV and Richelieu (2019) 'The Importance of Social Contract Theory in Modern Society'. Christo, B., 2003. They are directly related to each other. Did not see god as a source of political authority Especially when social contract discriminates against women politically, terming them as unworthy and unable to make crucial political decisions. Generally, people are unaware of this concept but when known, should adopt it. Cookies Policy, This essay on The Importance of Social Contract Theory in Modern Society was written and submitted by your fellow student. "Man is born free but everywhere he is in chains! It postulates a state of nature as the original condition of humanity and asocial contract, deliberately and voluntarily made, as the means of escape therefrom. To simplify it, Hobbesian social contract theory places an emphasis on the importance of a government that takes rights from the people to provide services and run the government. In subjecting themselves to a sovereign ruler, or other form of government, the people gain security.Locke expressed a belief that people had certain basic rights that must be supplied by the government, as a result of its contract with the people. His work greatly affected the development of epistemology and … The rule of law also, Lack of corporate governance is the main constraint of SMEs development. 2019. Social contract persisted being in use in United States of America, where by, social contract was argued to be succession rights in the southern before the emergency of civil war (Kelly & Boucher 1994, p.87). The power imbalance, held by law enforcement, is part of the contract … Individuals, through corporations, have the right to amass wealth, but morality dictates that they do so ethically. Western political theorists have predominantly been portraying the exchange and interdependence between their constitution and government through social contract model (McClelland 1996, p182). Social contract theories see the relationship of power between state and citizen as a consensual exchange. You can use them for inspiration, an insight into a particular topic, a handy source of reference, or even just as a template of a certain type of paper. Companies yield to social pressures for change and ethical duties by giving token concessions to its stakeholders under the name of “social responsibility” or by the owners doing philanthropic activities. You work together as a neighborhood to protect the homes of one another. 10 September. Unfortunately, your browser is too old to work on this site. Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) Published his most influential work Leviathan which provided a philosophical justification for a strong central political authority. So businesses do not understand the role of business ethics, no sense of building ethical business in the enterprise, the enterprise will be very difficult to go to the highest success. Social contract started by discussing kings, lords, nobles, princess and bishops duties though much later, the contract was centered on the rights an individual would look after to be protected by the state. the American Revolution steered the ratification of the US Declarations. Different activists gave different terms as far as social contract is concerned. In 18th century Jean Jacques Rousseau, offers an explanation regarding social contract theory which says, humanity in nature’s state is not wretched as depicted by Hobbes but is happy and independent. We will write a custom Essay on The Importance of Social Contract Theory in Modern Society specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page. IvyPanda, 10 Sept. 2019, ivypanda.com/essays/role-of-the-social-contract-in-western-political-theory/. 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