Poe oversaw the burning of Atlanta, for which action he was honored by Sherman. In 1864-65, U.S. soldiers under Sherman’s command marched through Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina. Sherman's 60,000 soldiers would have to march quickly. Some band, by accident, struck up the anthem of "John Brown's Body"; the men caught up the strain, and never before or since have I heard the chorus of "Glory, glory, hallelujah!" I suppose it will be safer if I leave General Grant and yourself to decide. Sherman was blocked from linking up with the U.S. Navy as he had planned, so he dispatched cavalry to Fort McAllister, guarding the Ogeechee River, in hopes of unblocking his route and obtaining supplies awaiting him on the Navy ships. He also continued to supervise destruction of Confederate infrastructure. Courtesy of National Archives and Records Administration, Southeast Region. Smith's 1,500 Georgia militiamen, 3 miles (4.8 km) south of Grahamville Station, South Carolina. ", "Scalawags and Scoundrels? There were only a few Confederate cavalry and Georgia militia to oppose him. to the Sea, the Civil War's most destructive campaign against a civilian population, began in Atlanta on November 15, 1864, and concluded in Savannah on December 21, 1864. It is estimated that during the six-week March to the Sea fewer than 3,000 casualties resulted. Professor Anne J. Bailey of Georgia College and State University has called the March to the Sea the "most destructive campaign against a civilian population during the Civil War." There were approximately 3,100 casualties, 2,100 of which were Union soldiers, and the countryside took years to recover. The cavalry captured two Confederate guns at Lovejoy's Station, and then two more and 50 prisoners at Bear Creek Station. It confiscated 9.5 million pounds of corn and 10.5 million pounds of fodder, and destroyed uncounted cotton gins and mills. Pastures and farmland became campsites, fence rows disappeared, and the countryside was scavenged for firewood. Choose from 82 different sets of shermans march flashcards on Quizlet. On the 15th of November, Sherman left Atlanta in flames and turned his army east. Sherman's "March to the Sea" followed his successful Atlanta Campaign of May to September 1864. In planning for the march, Sherman used livestock and crop production data from the 1860 census to lead his troops through areas where he believed they would be able to forage most effectively. Johnson's commitment to the Union, and Lincoln's desire for a nonpartisan, pro-war ticket, persuaded Lincoln to support Johnson for VP on the Union Party ticket in the 1864 election. Dozens of river crossings, poor or non-existent roads, and the extensive swamps of southern Georgia would have fatally slowed Sherman's force had not Poe's skills as leader of the bridge, road and pontoon building units kept the army moving. Early in the war, the North had maintained a conciliatory policy toward the south; there were, in fact, explicit orders to leave families enough to survive on. Wikipedia lists the casualties for both sides as "?". But what next? Learn shermans march with free interactive flashcards. Standard histories of Major General William T. Shermans celebrated March to the Sea invariably portray the Confederacys response as inconsequential. Sherman's March to the Sea. Sherman's March to the Sea (also known as the Savannah Campaign or simply Sherman's March) was a military campaign of the American Civil War conducted through Georgia from November 15 until December 21, 1864, by Maj. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman of the Union Army. (However, Poe was incensed at the level of uncontrolled arson by marauding soldiers not of his unit which resulted in heavy damage to civilian homes. He is the author of "The Everything American Presidents Book" and "Colonial Life: Government. Geary telegraphed Sherman, who advised him to accept the offer. Meanwhile Thomas crushed Hood at the battle of Nashville on 15 December 1864. [27] It was widely popular among US soldiers of 20th-century wars. Sherman's March to the Sea is the popular name given to the military campaign under the Command of Union General William Tecumseh Sherman, in which Union forces tore through Georgia between November 15 and December 21, 1864, destroying Confederate property, infrastructure, railroads, and farmlands as well as civilian … the civilian population. Sherman's March to the Sea refers to a long stretch of devastating Union army movements that took place during the United States Civil War. "[24] David J. Eicher wrote that "Sherman had accomplished an amazing task. Welch, Robert Christopher. To this end, each brigade commander will organize a good and sufficient foraging party, under the command of one or more discreet officers, who will gather, near the route traveled, corn or forage of any kind, meat of any kind, vegetables, corn-meal, or whatever is needed by the command, aiming at all times to keep in the wagons at least ten day's provisions for the command and three days' forage. Appomattox: The Battle of Appomattox … Away off in the distance, on the McDonough road, was the rear of Howard's column, the gun-barrels glistening in the sun, the white-topped wagons stretching away to the south; and right before us the Fourteenth Corps, marching steadily and rapidly, with a cheery look and swinging pace, that made light of the thousand miles that lay between us and Richmond. On November 25–26 at Sandersville, Wheeler struck at Slocum's advance guard. Confederate Lt. Gen. John Bell Hood was threatening Sherman's supply line from Chattanooga, and Sherman detached two armies under Maj. Gen. George H. Thomas to deal with Hood in the Franklin-Nashville Campaign. Military and civilian casualties were extremely low. General William Tecumseh Sherman remains famous – or infamous – for his “March to the Sea.” He has been regarded by many Southerners as a horrendous villain of the Civil War. It seized 5,000 horses, 4,000 mules, and 13,000 head of cattle. Kilpatrick slipped by the defensive line that Wheeler had placed near Brier Creek, but on the night of November 26 Wheeler attacked and drove the 8th Indiana and 2nd Kentucky Cavalry away from their camps at Sylvan Grove. The army will forage liberally on the country during the march. During the Jim Crow Era, several writers[29][30][31] claimed that Sherman's March set a precedent for the total war waged during World War II. Grant ordered him to “clear the country” ahead of him and to form black regiments when he had encountered enough former slaves (he … The Cavalry Corps of Maj. Gen. Joseph Wheeler, reinforced by a brigade under Brig. There were approximately 3,100 casualties, 2,100 of which were Union soldiers, and the countryside took years to recover. They often felt betrayed, as they "suffered along with their owners, complicating their decision of whether to flee with or from Union troops". The March to the Sea for Floyd Legion started with a skirmish at Buckhead, just south of Madison, on Nov. 19, 1864, and ended in Savannah on Dec. 10, 1864. Other historical analysis however rejects the comparison. Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the U.S. Confederate States presidential election of 1861, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sherman%27s_March_to_the_Sea&oldid=993929872, Campaigns of the Western Theater of the American Civil War, Military operations of the American Civil War in Georgia (U.S. state), Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2020, Articles needing additional references from December 2015, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. ... Sherman's march … Promoted by Sherman by two steps in rank to colonel after the fall of Savannah, he continued in that capacity in the war's concluding Carolinas Campaign as Sherman headed northwards from Savannah to link up with Grant and the Army of the Potomac in Virginia and to cut another swath through South and North Carolina. Kilpatrick abandoned his plans to destroy the railroad bridge and he also learned that the prisoners had been moved from Camp Lawton, so he rejoined the army at Louisville. And in bringing the war to the heart of the South, he demonstrated the Confederacy's inability to protect its own people. On December 13, William B. Hazen's division of Howard's wing stormed the fort in the Battle of Fort McAllister and captured it within 15 minutes. At the Battle of Buck Head Creek on November 28, Kilpatrick was surprised and nearly captured, but the 5th Ohio Cavalry halted Wheeler's advance, and Wheeler was later stopped decisively by Union barricades at Reynolds's Plantation. Howard's infantry marched through Jonesboro to Gordon, southwest of the state capital, Milledgeville. Several important skirmishes along the way, including: The March to the Sea was successful. The purpose of this “March to the Sea” was to frighten Georgia’s civilian population into abandoning the Confederate cause. I know that this recent movement of mine through Georgia has had a wonderful effect in this respect. On December 4, Kilpatrick's cavalry routed Wheeler's at the Battle of Waynesboro. "[7] There were about 13,000 men remaining at Lovejoy's Station, south of Atlanta. At the same time, Slocum's left wing approached the state capital at Milledgeville, prompting the hasty departure of Governor Joseph Brown and the state legislature. [21], The March to the Sea was devastating to Georgia and the Confederacy. Sherman captured Savannah, crippling its vital military resources. Overnight, Union engineers constructed a bridge 2 miles (3.2 km) away from the bluff across the Oconee River, and 200 soldiers crossed to flank the Confederate position. to the Sea, the Civil War's most destructive campaign against a civilian population, began in Atlanta on November 15, 1864, and concluded in Savannah on December 21, 1864. Foraging parties may also take mules or horses to replace the jaded animals of their trains, or to serve as pack-mules for the regiments or brigades. The second objective of the campaign was more traditional. Sherman’s so-called “scorched earth policies” remain controversial, with many Southerners still detesting his memory. By using ThoughtCo, you accept our, Burning Atlanta and the Start of the March, American Civil War: Lieutenant General Nathan Bedford Forrest, American Civil War: Andersonville Prison Camp, American Civil War: Major General George H. Thomas, Sherman's March to the Sea in the American Civil War, American Civil War : War in the West, 1863-1865, American Civil War: General William T. Sherman, American Civil War: Major General John Buford, American Civil War: Major General John C. Frémont, American Civil War: Major General Carl Schurz, American Civil War: Major General Patrick Cleburne, American Civil War: Battle of Bentonville, American Civil War: Battle of Jonesboro (Jonesborough), American Civil War: General Joseph E. Johnston, American Civil War: Major General Joseph Wheeler, American Civil War: Lieutenant General John Bell Hood, "'We Have Surely Done a Big Work': The Diary of a Hoosier Soldier on Sherman's 'March to the Sea. According to Sherman’s own estimates, his armies seized 5,000 horses, 4,000 mules, and 13,000 head of cattle in addition to confiscating 9.5 million pounds of corn and 10.5 million pounds of livestock fodder. He devoted the next few weeks to chasing Confederate troops through northern Georgia in a vain attempt to lure them into a decisive fight. While Howard's wing was delayed near Ball's Bluff, the 1st Alabama Cavalry (a Federal regiment) engaged Confederate pickets. On November 23, Slocum's troops captured the city and held a mock legislative session in the capitol building, jokingly voting Georgia back into the Union.[12]. [20] A Confederate officer estimated that 10,000 liberated slaves followed Sherman's army, and hundreds died of "hunger, disease, or exposure" along the way. Foragers, known as "bummers", would provide food seized from local farms for the Army while they destroyed the railroads and the manufacturing and agricultural infrastructure of Georgia. When all is taken into account, the brutal battles, the staggering casualties, families divided against each other, the monumental … In all foraging, of whatever kind, the parties engaged will refrain from abusive or threatening language, and may, where the officer in command thinks proper, give written certificates of the facts, but no receipts, and they will endeavor to leave with each family a reasonable portion for their maintenance. Compared to the 51,000 killed, wounded and missing at Gettysburg in the three days of fighting there or the 24,000 in the two days at Shiloh, the month-long March to the Sea was nearly bloodless. Jacqueline Campbell has written, on the other hand, that some slaves looked upon the Union army's ransacking and invasive actions with disdain. Some of the 134 Union casualties were caused by torpedoes, a name for crude land mines that were used only rarely in the war. Former Southern Brigadier General Clement A. Evans asserted, for example, that there was no force available to obstruct Shermans soldiers. His forces followed a "scorched earth" policy, destroying military targets as well as industry, infrastructure, and civilian property, disrupting the Confederacy's economy and transportation networks. Maj. Gen. John G. Foster dispatched 5,500 men and 10 guns under Brig. I'm pretty sure that the union had 2100 injuries/casualties and that the confederacy had 1000 roughly. "Sherman's March to the Sea". After sending Thomas and Schofield back to Tennessee, Sherman had 62,000 soldiers. Having virtually vanished from the War Department’s view during his march to Savannah, Sherman chose to cut his supply lines and ordered his men to live off the land—and people—in their path. Howard's wing, led by Kilpatrick's cavalry, marched south along the railroad to Lovejoy's Station, which caused the defenders there to conduct a fighting retreat to Macon. "[14] On December 26, the president replied in a letter:[15]. [23] Military historians Herman Hattaway and Archer Jones cited the significant damage wrought to railroads and Southern logistics in the campaign and stated that "Sherman's raid succeeded in 'knocking the Confederate war effort to pieces'. I saw showed the Home Guard, made up of wounded soldiers, and chickens from the 's. 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